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ABOUT HEMP

Konoplja izvira iz območja severozahodne Himalaje, ki sega tja do Aralskega jezera in Kaspijskega morja. Gojene oblike so nastale iz samorasle Cannabis sativa L. ssp. spontanea z odbiro in prenosom v druga geografsko-ekološka območja. Proti jugo- in severozahodu so se razširili in oblikovali različni ekotipi konoplje, ki se ločijo po morfoloških, zlasti pa po kemijskih lastnostih in namenu uporabe.

Nam najbolj poznani vrsti konoplje sta Cannabis sativa L. var. sativa (navadna ali industrijska konoplja) in Cannabis sativa L. var. indica (indijska konoplja). Slednja se uporablja za pridelovanje droge in tako je zaradi nje rod Cannabis na slabem glasu. Ločita se po vsebnosti THC (tetrahidrokanabinol- psihoaktiven kanabinoid) in CBD (kanabidiol, nima psihoaktivnega učinka, zavira THC), kjer je razmerje THC:CBD pri navadni konoplji 1:5, pri indijski konoplji pa 2:1. Ker sta si vrsti tako zelo podobni, je najbolj zanesljiv pokazatelj, za katero vrsto gre, kemijska analiza, ki pokaže kolikšna je vsebnost THC in CBD.

Navadna konoplja (Cannabis sativa L.) spada v družino konopljevk (Cannabaceae) in je sorodnica hmelja ter koprive. Je enoletna rastlina, z vretenasto in nekaj stranskimi koreninami, s pokončnim, zelnatim in dlakavim steblom, ki se lahko razveji glede na ekotip ter doseže višino od 0,5 m do 5 m.

Je dvodomna rastlina, kjer sta ženska (črnica) in moška (belica) rastlini ločeni. Nastale pa so tako imenovane hermafroditne sorte oziroma enodomne sorte, kjer sta ženska in moška rastlina na isti rastlini. Moška stebla so lažja, dajejo manj vlaken, ne nosijo semena, hitro uvenijo in zgodaj odmrejo. Imajo pa ogromno cvetnega prahu, ki je koristen za čebele, čeprav konoplja ne potrebuje čebel za oprašitev, saj je vetrocvetka.

Enodomne rastline se z agronomskega vidika vedejo kot  ženske rastline. Pridelek slame in vlaken bi naj pri enodomnih bil večji od  15 do 20 %,  semena pa od 20 do 30 %  glede na dvodomne rastline ter lažje  spravilo  pridelka, zaradi česar so tudi bolj priporočljive za gojenje. Za čaj pa so boljše dvodomne rastline. Enodomne rastline so bolj podvržene plesnim.

Višina rasti konoplje se giba od 1,5 m pa vse do 5 m in je odvisna od roka setve in načina pridelave. Zgodnja setev ali setev kot glavni posevek da višje rastline, saj imajo več časa za rast. Pozna setev ali strniščna setev (za drugimi kulturami) da nižje rastline.

Višina je odvisna tudi od prehranjenosti tal s hranili; preveč ali dobro založena tla s hranili da višje rastline in obratno. Na višino rastlin vplivajo tudi vremenske razmere, kot je močna suša, ki povzroči, da rastline zastanejo v rasti in so tako nižje.

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